A society contains individuals and groups having different characters and developmental status. But mutual understanding and co-operation are necessary among them. No one can alone produce all the things.
Resources for energy are to be renewable to govern the theorem of limits of production. Deendayalji says, we should receive as much resources from nature as it can renew in its natural process. Nature however, is neglected though it is a single unique factory of renewable resources. In this framework of nature, we must cognize the necessity of limits on production. Constraints are the rational policy. Man cannot produce without the help of nature which supplies material resources and man operates on them. To him, the economists should consider ethical, cultural values along with material goals and constraints are to be exercised on consumption. The limits on available natural resources and, therefore, the limits on production system have been explained earlier. This is conceptualised in ‘restraints on consumption’ by Deendayalji. He suggested that economics should study spiritual goals along with material goals.
While pointing out the defects of Western principles like socialism, democracy etc. Punditji has mentioned some points. The principle of progress through conflict is one among them. This is not acceptable one because individual is to be basically loving, co-operating, service oriented, tolerant and disciplined. For progress we have to take these as basic principles and a base for our analysis of human activity.
It is discernible that Bharateeya cultural heritage is a treasure house to the world in this respect. Bharat is a country which has thousands of years of heritage.
The ‘Mundkopanishad’ emphasises equally the refining and processing of external nature’s energies, through the physical sciences, and internal human energies, through the sciences of ‘adhyatma-vidya’, the science of man in depth. So in Bharateeya perspective there are three dimensions of development as far as an individual and society are concerned – physical, mental and spiritual. As per Purushardha in our philosophy (four values in human life—Dharma, Artha, Kaam, Moksha) both Artha and Karma can be attained by following the principle of Dharma. The spiritual growth of an individual is determined with his/her moral awareness and capacity to love and to be loved to other human beings and living beings. Like every individual all the families and nations have their own personality in the form of tradition, heritage practices etc. In our culture individual is the central point consciousness of what ‘I’ am, grows successfully, travelling outward. This sort of development is possible only for those individuals who work for the four Purusharthas (Objectives in life). This goes on till the whole universe is reached. It ends in a big circle which represents the universal soul, who is all-pervasive. This is the heart of the philosophy of integral humanism. The track is to be infant-parents and sisters-friends-society—nation—and universe. This is the broad and deep concept in Bharateeya philosophy.
It could be found in an analysis of the different dimensions of social life from the family, as a basic unit of social life, which is a definite biological grouping having spiritual bond. When this group expanded to society, clan, tribe, and nation the biological bond becomes less and less, while spiritual bond expresses itself as ethical awareness and social feelings. It is this awareness and feelings that are the determinants of achievements of individuals in the form of civilisation, development, etc.. If science and politics make for progress and development in the natural and social environments, there must be spirituality to make man adequate to development. When vast powers are placed in the hands of man, there must be ample powers generated in his heart through moral and spiritual discipline of the whole personality. It is always individual-in-society and society-for-individuals. Deendayalji was much concerned about what he called ‘Samashti Dharma’ which means Dharma of society’. This includes things like natural tendencies, the rules and regulations do’s and don’ts necessary for the smooth running of the society. A society contains individuals and groups having different characters and developmental status. But mutual understanding and co-operation are necessary among them. The same spirit is to be reflected in both social and political life. Because no one can alone produce all the things which are needs for life. A farmer produces corn but his needs for cloth are supplied by the weaver. So life depends on this give and take. With a view to develop cooperation and to avoid any perversions, some rules and conventions are made and certain qualities are nurtured in the citizens and these constitute the ‘Samashti Dharma’.
Dr Umadevi S (The writer is Associate Professor in Political Science, Sanatana Dharma College, Alappuzha)