Objectives of Celebrating National Science Day
Children, you must be aware that February 28th is celebrated as National Science Day in Bharat every year. But do you know why the day is celebrated as National Science Day? I am sure you have heard of renowned Indian Scientist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman. Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman had worked from 1907 to 1933 at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata, West Bengal in Bharat during which he had researched on many topics of Physics. On February 28th in the year 1928, Sir C V Raman discovered a phenomenon of scattering of photons which was later known as ‘Raman Effect’ after his name. After two years in 1930, he got Nobel Prize for this remarkable discovery and this was the first Nobel Prize in Physics for Bharat. From the year 2013, the “Raman Effect” has been designated as an International Historic Chemical Landmark by The American Chemical Society.
National Science Day is celebrated all over India with great enthusiasm on February 28 every year in order to commemorate the invention of the Raman Effect in Bharat by the Indian physicist, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman. For Chandrasekhara’s great success in the field of science this day is celebrated as one of the main science festivals in Bharat every year during which students of the schools and colleges demonstrates various science projects as well as national and State science institutions demonstrates their latest researches.
When was the day declared as National Science Day
In 1986, the National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC) asked the Government to designate February 28 as National Science Day which the then Government dully accepted. The first National Science Day was celebrated on February 28, 1987. Since then, February 28, is marked as National Science Day to encourage young minds towards scientific innovation.
Theme of National Science Day 2015
The theme for the National Science Day 2015 is “Science for Nation Building”. Based on the theme, the activities such as S&T exhibitions, popular lecture, theme based demonstrations, radio/television programmes, slide shows, debates/quiz/essay writing competitions, and other appropriate activities involving participation of large number of people, aimed at nurturing scientific temper in them, would be organised.
Raman Effect is change in the wavelength of light that occurs when a light beam is deflected by molecules. When a beam of light traverses a dust-free, transparent sample of a chemical compound, a small fraction of the light emerges in directions other than that of the incident (incoming) beam. Most of this scattered light is of unchanged wavelength. A small part, however, has wavelengths different from that of the incident light; its presence is a result of the Raman Effect.
|Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was born on November 7, 1888 to a Tamil family at Trichinopoly, Kerala. At an early age, Raman moved to the city of Visakhapatnam, and studied in St. Aloysius Anglo-Indian High School. Raman passed his matriculation examination at the age of 11 and he passed his F.A. examination (equivalent to today's Intermediate exam) with a scholarship at the age of 13. He did his MA from the Madras University in 1907.
Raman was made the Deputy Accountant General in Calcutta in 1907, after successfully clearing the Civil Service Examination. Despite being busy due to his job, he managed to spare his evenings for scientific research at the laboratory of the Indian Association for Cultivation of Sciences. On certain occasions, he even spent the entire night. Such was his passion that in 1917, he resigned from the position to become the Professor of Physics at Calcutta University.
He did his Ph.D. from the Freiburg University and LLD from Glasgow University. He also received honorary Ph.D. and D.Sc. from several universities. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1924. Professor Raman is famous for his discovery of the ‘Raman Effect’, and was knighted in 1929.
For his achievement, he won the Nobel Prize in physics in the year 1930. His scientific work dealt mainly with molecular diffraction of light, mechanical theory of the bowed strings and diffraction of X – rays. Raman also worked on the acoustics of musical instruments.
He worked out the theory of transverse vibration of bowed strings, on the basis of superposition velocities. He was also the first to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of the Indian drums such as the tabla and the mridangam. He was also interested in the properties of other musical instruments based on forced vibrations such as the violin. He investigated the propagation of sound in whispering galleries.
He retired from the Indian Institute of Science in 1948 and established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, a year later. He served as its director and remained active there until his death in November 21,1970, in Bangalore, at the age of 82.