Guru Gobind Singh was a spiritual leader, philosopher, poet, and renowned warrior, who served as the tenth and final Sikh Guru. Born as Gobind Rai at Patna in Bihar in 1666, he became the tenth Sikh Guru at the age of nine, after his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur. His mother’s name was Mata Gujri.
Martyred for Refusing to Embrace Islam
Guru Gobind Singh and his family returned to Punjab in 1670, and in March 1672, they moved to Chakk Nanaki near Shivani Hills, where he completed his education. The Kashmir Pandits petitioned Guru Tegh Bahadur in 1675 to protect them from the persecution of Iftikar Khan, the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb’s administrator. Tegh Bahadur agreed to safeguard the Pandits, thus he rose up against Aurangzeb’s harshness. Aurangzeb invited Tegh Bahadur to Delhi, and when he arrived, he was urged to convert to Islam. Tegh Bahadur refused, and he and his friends were imprisoned and publicly killed on November 11, 1675, in Delhi.
Taking Over the Reigns
On Vaisakhi, March 29, 1676, the Sikhs made Guru Gobind Singh the tenth Sikh Guru, following the death of his father. Guru Gobind Singh was only nine-years-old when he took over as Sikh guru from his father. The world had no idea that this nine-year-old boy, with determination in his eyes, was about to change everything. Guru Gobind Singh resided at Paonta Sahib until 1685, where he continued his education and learned the fundamental abilities needed to defend oneself in a war, such as horse riding, archery, and other martial arts.
Safeguard Entire Humanity
Mata Jito, Mata Sundari, and Mata Sahib Devan were Guru’s three wives. Mata Sahib Devan was a pivotal figure in Sikhism, and the Guru dubbed her “Mother of the Khalsa.” Guru Gobind Rai, under the guidance of the Creator, gave the Sikhs drops of Amrit in order to build a community of people willing to lay down their lives to safeguard the dignity and divinity of all humanity. Guru Gobind Rai was thus reborn as Guru Gobind Singh. The Khalsa Order was founded—a group of men and women committed to living in equality and peace, but willing to fight and die to protect themselves and others from injustice and tyranny.
Guru Gobind Singh was a spiritual master, warrior, and philosopher. He succeeded his father as the leader of the Sikhs at the tender age of nine, he was just nine years old at the time of his father’s death. He was a courageous warrior who inspired his followers to fight and die to protect themselves and others from injustice and oppression. He is also credited with the establishment of the Khalsa and the introduction of the Five Ks idea to Sikhism
Sikhs were required by the Guru to wear five articles at all times: Kesh, Kangha, Kara, Kachera and Kirpan. He established a system of discipline for the Khalsa warriors. Tobacco prohibition, consuming ‘halal’ meat slaughtered according to Muslim custom, immorality, and adultery were among them.
Guru Arjan, the fifth Sikh Guru, composed the Adi Granth, or Sikh scripture. It included hymns from earlier Gurus as well as many saints. But, it was lost during Guru Gobind Singh’s lifetime. Guru Gobind Singh established himself as tenth guru and dictated the whole Adi Granth. Guru Granth Sahib was eventually the expanded form of Adi Granth. Guru Gobind Singh published a second edition of the religious scripture in 1706 that included one salok, dohra mahala nine ang, and all of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur’s 115 hymns. Sri Guru Granth Sahib was the name given to the new rendition. All of the preceding Gurus contributed to the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, which also included the traditions and teachings of Indian saints such as Kabir. The Sri Guru Granth Sahib was compiled as a result of this process.
Fighting for Righteousness
Following Guru Tegh Bahadur’s execution, tensions between Sikhs and Muslims grew. Guru Gobind Singh believed in Dharam Yudh, or fighting for righteousness, and fought thirteen wars against the Mughal Empire and the Siwalik Hills monarchs, yet he never kept captives or harmed places of worship of other religions. The Second Battle of Anandpur (1704) was a particularly bloody engagement. Guru’s mother Mata Gujari, as well as his two sons Zorawar Singh, and Fateh Singh, 5, were apprehended. When the two sons refused to convert to Islam, they were buried alive in a wall, while Mata Gujri died hearing her grandson’s death. During the Battle of Chamkaur, the Guru lost two of his other sons, Ajit Singh and Jujhar Singh, as well as other Sikh soldiers (1704).
Following the Battle of Chamkaur, in which Aurangzeb and his Army breached a pledge, in 1705, the Guru composed a defiant letter to Aurangzeb called Zafarnama. It was written in Persian language.
The Guru strongly chastised and criticised Aurangzeb and his commanders of being immoral in both governing and war behaviour, and forecasted the Mughal Empire’s demise in the near future due to its immorality, persecution, and untruthfulness in the letter.
Evil Design of Afghan Assassins
Following the Second Battle of Anandpur, the Guru and his army dispersed to various locations. Bahadur Shah, the Mughal monarch, intended to meet the Guru in person in the Deccan area of India to reconcile with him after Aurangzeb’s death in 1707. Two Afghans managed to infiltrate the Guru’s proximity, while he was tented at Nanded on the banks of the Godavari River and stabbed him. The Guru replied by killing one of them, while the Sikh guards killed the other. On October 7, 1708, the Guru died from the wounds of the assault, which was followed by a resumption of the Sikh-Mughal conflict.
Guru Gobind Singh handed the Guruship to Shri Guru Granth Sahib at the end of his life, in 1708.