In Vaisheshik Darshan by Sage Kanaad, it is mentioned that (work) or action means motion. There are five kinds of motion:
1. Utpekshan (Upward motion)
2. Avkshepan (Downward motion)
3. Aakunchan (Motion due to the release of tensile stress)
4. Prasaran (Shearing motion)
5. Gaman (General motion)
It has also analysed the different motions on the basis of reason:
1. because of propulsion?continuous pressure.
2. because of effort?such as moving of the hands.
3. because of the gravity?just as something falls down.
4. because of fluidity or liquidity?with the impact or influence of minute particles.
In his book, The Physics, Dr. N.G. Dongre compares the velocity mentioned in the vast commentary written in the 1st century in Prashastpad Bhashya to Newton'sLaws of Motion (1675)
Vego Panchasu Dravyeshu Nimit?
Jayate Niyatdik Kriya Prabandh Hetuh
Dravyasanyog Vishesh Virodhi Kvachit
Karan Gun Purv Kramenotpadyate.
?Motion is caused by the five substances or matter and is created by special objects. It gets created and destroyed also by actions done in the regular direction.?
The above mentioned commentary of Prashastpad can be divided into three parts, and then we can find the striking similarity with Newton'sLaws of Motion.
1. Vegah Nimittvisheshat Karmano Jayate
The change of motion is due to impressed force. (Principia)
2. Vegah Nimittapekshat Karmano Jayate Niyatdik Kriya Prabandh Hetuh
The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed and is made in the direction of the right line in which the force is impressed. (Principia)
3. Vegah Sanyogvisheshvirodhi
To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction. (Principia)
Here, the definition of Vaisheshik is given along with Newton'sLaw of Motion, that velocity or force is a physical entity created by motion or work.
Elasticity is the name given to the property because of which rods, etc. vibrate and emit sound. Vaisheshik Philosophers knew this. It is mentioned in Udayan'sNyay Karikavli.
Ateendriyosau Vigyeyah Kvachit
In the other kinds of matter, solid or liquid the invisible force created in the substance is the cause of vibration.
In Bhaskaracharya'sbook, Siddhant Shiromani (written in 12th century) in Shlokas 53-56, of the mechanics of the Goladhyaya, the water wheel has been described.
Tvadhomukham Ch Bahih
Yugapanmukt Chet K Nalen
Nemyam Baddhva Ghatikashchakram
Nalakprachyutsalilam Patati Yatha Tadghati Madhye.-55
Bhramati Tatastat Satatam Purnghateebhih Samakrishtam
Chakrachyutam Tadudakam Kunde Yati
That is, if one takes a copper rod, folds it like an elephant driver'shook and dips one end in a vessel of water and leaves the other end face downwards outside, then all the water of the vessel will flow out of the tap. Tie the vessels and place them in a circle. Place the two ends of the axis in such a way that the water that falls from the tap, falls into the vessel. This way, the circle will go on continuously and the water that falls from the circle, falls into the reservoir through the drain.
Analysing the book Samarangan Sutradhar, edited by Bhoj in 1150 AD, Rao Saheb K.V. Vajhe'sinformation about the machine in 1926, conveys the impression of a developed mechanical knowledge. From the point of view of all machines, something has been said about some basic or fundamental things.
Prakritya Parthivam Sthiram Shesheshu
Atah Prayen Sa Janya Kshitavev
The earth in naturally stationary. All machines, with respect to this static earth, are forms of motion produced in matter by artificial means.
(This book is available with Ocean Books(P) Ltd, 4/19, Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi-110 002.)