After the Bhima Koregaon case, the subject of Urban Naxal, i.e., Urban Maoism came into focus all over the country. Some people were of the opinion that urban Maoists should be severely punished, while a group of other people insisted that it’s a figment of imagination and no such thing as Urban Maoists exists. They argued that anyone who is against Modi, BJP, and the Sangh Parivar is branded as an ‘Urban Maoist’ and is silenced. These two conflicting lines of propaganda left the common man confused and unable to know the reality of the situation.
A perusal of the documents written by the Maoists themselves reveals the truth about the existence of the Urban Maoists and their work. This article is a humble attempt to make common people understand the truth about Maoism and Urban Maoists.
Understanding Maoist Objectives
Maoist violent attacks are always highlighted in the media. But what is the definite purpose of the Maoists’ attacks on the security forces? And what are their intentions behind the brutal killings of the common citizens? The common man does not understand exactly what the Maoist wants to achieve. To understand all this, it is necessary to carefully read the documents written by the Maoists themselves.
‘The Strategy and Tactics of the Indian Revolution’ is the most important document written by the Maoist. Another document that provides detailed guidance for Maoist work in urban areas is the ‘Urban Perspective’. The top Maoist leadership has written these two documents, so their organisation works according to what is written in these documents. What exactly does the Maoist organisation want to achieve? What is their objective? All this is written explicitly in this book named ‘The Strategy and Tactics of Indian Revolution’. The Maoist writes in the most unambiguous words, “Our Aim is to seize the Political Power of India through Armed War & to solve this issue by war. The main task of the Maoist organisation is to destroy the Indian army, police and the entire bureaucratic system, by war.”
That the Maoists have launched a War against India is now beyond any doubt. It is clear that the Maoists do not accept the Indian Constitution and are trying to establish a violent Authoritarian Regime in India by destroying the whole Constitutional framework. But how exactly are the Maoists going to achieve their goal? They further write in the same document that first of all, the Maoists would form ‘Secured Maoist Zones’ in the remote areas, then they would raise a Maoist Army (PLGA) in such Zones. By creating safe Maoist zones in Bastar-Gadchiroli (Dandakaranya Zone), Balaghat-Mandla (MMC Zone), and Jharkhand, they have raised a Maoist army numbering in thousands. The Maoists further say that “once such secure bases and armies are built, then we should work on a strategy of gradually capturing the countryside and finally encircling and taking over the cities.’ There are ample incidents proving their above strategy.
On the night of February 6, 2004, hundreds of Maoists attacked Koraput, a district place in the state of Orissa. The Maoists laid siege to the city for approximately six hours. Maoists attacked five police stations, district Armoury, Jail and Superintendent of Police office in the city and looted weapons worth approximately fifty crore rupees.
February 16, 2008, Nayagarh, a district town barely a hundred kilometres from Orissa’s capital Bhubaneswar, around 10:00 pm / 11:00 pm, hundreds of armed Maoist men and women came to the city in different vehicles and attacked the police training center, armory, and police station. 14 policemen were killed and approximately 1200 guns and over one lakh cartridges were looted.
By now, the readers must have realized that the Maoists’ modus operandi is to create safe bases in remote areas and then raise an army, take over the countryside, and then attack the cities.
Urban Maoists: Working in the shadows
Now let’s try to learn something about the urban Maoists. The Maoist organisation has two parts. One part is the Armed Maoists (PLGA) in the forest and the other part is the Urban Maoists (United Front) working secretly in the city. Maoists in the jungles wear uniforms and carry guns openly, so they can be easily identified, but identifying the urban Maoists is very difficult. They never call themselves Maoists and work behind the facade of different organisations. Hiding behind the mask of civil society, these urban Maoists run their Front Organisations and act as respected leaders & intellectuals in the society.
The work of urban Maoists has been going on since many decades. Their first resolution on work in urban areas was passed by the Maoist State Committee of Andhra Pradesh State in 1973. Eventually the People’s War Group (PWG) of Andhra Pradesh reviewed and revised this Maoist urban work resolution in 1995. After the establishment of the CPI (Maoist) Party in 2004, their important documents have given special importance to urban work. As a result, the activities of urban Maoists have increased to a great extent. It is very necessary to understand the definite objective of the urban Maoists. ‘Urban Perspective’ is the most important document of the Maoists about their work in urban areas. Here, the Maoists clearly write, “Consolidation of Maoist work in urban areas is very necessary since taking over the cities is the ultimate goal of the Maoist revolution”. They further write, “the urban Maoists must build broad mass organisations and organise massive agitations in the cities. This is the most important work of urban Maoists. Along with this work, they should help the Maoist Army (PLGA) by providing cadres, leaders, arms, ammunition, medicines, food grains, various equipment, and all other types of assistance. The role of the Maoist Army (PLGA) in the jungles is paramount, and it is the task of the urban Maoists to support and help the PLGA “.
After clarifying the objectives of urban Naxals, this Maoist document gives us an idea as to where and how they should work in urban areas. It clearly states, “Urban Maoists should work in all sectors like farmers, workers, students, women, middle class, intellectuals, dalits, tribals, minority communities, etc”. In short, all the segments of society should be influenced. The Maoists further write, “Urban Maoists should infiltrate the police, paramilitary forces, and even the Indian Army. Activists in urban areas should hide their Maoist identity & never reveal their affiliation with the Maoist organisation. Maoist front organisations and underground Maoist organisations should be careful as to ensure that the relations of the organisations are not exposed. Urban activists should establish new mass organisations with extensive public support and at the same time infiltrate other such social organisations.” It is imperative to state that Maoists were fully involved in the Kisan Andolan, anti-CAA movement, Rohit Vemula movement, Koregaon Bhima movement.
Urban Maoists have a special type of work which they call ‘Fractional Work’. This work is done in utmost secrecy and is equally dangerous. Fractional work is a well-organized process. First, a Maoist worker joins a non-Maoist organisation, then he inducts few other Maoist workers into this organisation. In due course, very systematically, all these people become office bearers in that non-Maoist organisation and thus take full control of that non-Maoist organisation. Later on, they start using such organisations for Maoist work. This fractional work is done so cleverly and secretly that the ordinary workers of that organisation never realise that their organisation is taken over by the Maoists and these ignorant workers themselves are indirectly helping the Maoist-terrorist organisation. In the document Urban Perspective, the Maoists further write, “If we work in this way, it will be very beneficial in the long run. If we succeed in hiding our true Maoist identity, the government agencies will never harass us, so for us, fractional work is the best option in urban areas.”
By working in this manner, Urban Maoists have captured many social organisations across the country and are using them for the work of their terrorist organisation. Gathering evidence against such Maoist Infiltrators and convicting them in a court case is a very difficult task.
Countering the Maoist threat
By now, the readers must have realised the monstrous nature of the Maoist organisation in the jungle and in the cities as well. The next question which arises is, what exactly should the common man do against this terrorist organisation? The police and intelligence agencies are doing their job, but we must remember that National Security is the joint responsibility of the Security Forces and the common citizens. The whole society should organise mass sensitisation programs and mass movement against the Maoist-terrorist and their front organisations.
All terrorist organisations around the world have their roots in the society. These terrorist organisations can function as long as they get support from the society, the moment the society turns against them, such organisations cease to exist. It seems that the time has come for all the Indians to raise up against the anti-national and anti-constitutional violent Maoist organisation. If the Indian society starts mass sensitisation campaigns and mass movements against them, this violent Maoist-terrorist organisation will cease to exist in a short time.