The COP-27 Summit at the coastal city of Sharm-el-Sheikh (Egypt) has proved to the world that India is much ahead of many developed countries in the world, surpassing even the United States, European Union and China in the parameter of climate change performance. This has been attributed to India due to its climate targets and announcement of net-zero-goal strategies.
An international and environmental think tank organisation called the Germanwatch has put India in the 8th position of climate action. The UK has been ranked 11th, Germany at the 16th, and China and USA in the 51st and 52nd positions respectively. Denmark and Sweden have been the top performers for this year at the COP-27 summit.
According to the Index, India has a high rating in GHG Emissions and Energy (Green House Gases) and is ranked medium in Climate Policy and Renewable Change. The nation is on its way to meeting its 2030 emission targets. However, the Renewable Energy Pathway is not on the track for 2030 target.
Since last year’s rankings, India has increased its climate targets in the NDC (National Determined Contributions) and net zero targets for 2070. In its upgraded NDC, India has promised to ensure that half of its electricity generation will come from renewable energy resources. It has also promised that it will make deeper cuts in emission intensity by 45% from 2005 levels by 2030 instead of 33-35% which was the earlier target.
However, Indian climate actions were still not consistent with the 1.5-degree Celsius target. It has increased its oil and gas production by 2030 which is incompatible with the 1.5-degree Celsius targets.
The People’s Republic of China has dropped to a lower level as it is heavily reliant on coal and lacks clarity on long-term climate policies. The statement said China’s 2030 target for peaking of its emissions was not aligned with the global target of keeping the temperature rise well below 2 degrees Celsius from pre-industrial times.
The United States of America has moved three ranks due to Joe Biden’s recent climate measures. But the statement states that many US policies are not mandatory and implementation has been very slow.
The COP27 will focus on three main objectives – emission reduction, helping countries prepare and respond to climate change and providing technical aid and funding for developing countries to respond to climate change.
The CCPI (Climate Change Performance Index) evaluates 59 countries and the European Union, which together generate over 90 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. Using standard criteria, the CCPI looks at four categories, with 14 indicators: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Renewable Energy, Energy Use, and Climate Policy.
The report further added that India must adopt a carbon pricing mechanism and develop more capacities at the subnational level to improve its performance. Also, a concrete action plan for achieving the targets must be determined.