When we strike a bell, its sound can be heard at a distance. How does this happen? Explaining the process, Vatsyayan and Udyotkar say that a certain kind of vibration takes place when the bell is struck. Some atoms move because of the blow and combined with sanskaar, which is known as kamp santaan sanskaar, create a vibration and with the help of the air, are carried forward. These are heard in an uninterrupted manner. Vibration cause this.
Vigyan Bhikshu, in his Pravachan Bhaashya, chapter 1 sootra 7, asks what is echo? Explaining this, it has been said that just as one'simage, which can be seen in the mirror or in water, is called reflection, similarly, when sound strikes against something, it rebounds, and is called an echo. Just as the reflection in the mirror or in water is not the true image, similarly an echo is not the true sound either.
Roopavattvam cha na saamaanya
tah pratibimba prayojakam shabdaasyaapi
Prati dhwani roop pratibimba
?(Vidvaan Bhikshu, pravachan bhaashya, a1 sootra 87)
Pitch intensity and timbre
According to Vaachaspati Mishra Shabdasya asaadhaaran dharmah?there are many characteristics of sound. In Tatva Chintaamani, Gangesh Upadhyayji says, ?vaayoreva mandatar tamaaadikramena mandaadi shabdotpattih?. Gentle and loud sounds are created with the assistance of wind.
Scholars like Vaachaspati, Jaimini, Udyan, etc. have in their books, analysed the generation of sound, its vibrations, echoes, its intensity, softness and its results thousands of years ago. All this is amazing even today.
Science of Writing (Script) or Graphemics
Many western scholars in the 18th and 19th centuries, tried to spread the illusion that the ancient sages were ignorant in the art of writing and that the root of the Brahmi and other scripts that developed in India in 300-400 BC, was outside India. In this context, Dr. Orfreed and Mueller ascertained that the Indians learned writing from the Greeks. Sir William Jones said that the Indian Brahmi script developed from the Semetic script. Prof. Banfre and Prof. Baver tried to prove the fact that the Phoenician script was the foundation of the Brahmi script. Dr. David Deringer felt that Brahmi was born out of the Aramaic script. While writing the history of Sanskrit literature, in the context of script, Max Mueller established his opinion that the art of writing was known to in India since 400 BC only.
Unfortunately, later on, Indian scholars also started singing the tune of the west and supported their conclusions. In this process, they did not make much effort to learn about the script and its development as given in the books and the country'stradition.
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