While deliberating on treatment, the physiology, and anatomy of the body, preparation of medicines, their kinds, uses, etc. were also given deep thought. Some of them are given below. This will make us realise how minutely we analysed this at time when the western world had not even a thought to it. We shall learn some of its main points:
1. Health-The definition of a healthy person as given in the Charak Samhita is more expansive and apt than that of modern medical science.
A person whose gout, bile and phlegm, sapta dhaatu, purgation, etc. are all balanced and the spirit, senses and mind are in a happy state, is called a healthy person.
2. Physiology?According to Sushruta Shareere 5, 6 in the Sushruta Samhita, the following are the main points in the construction of a body:
Substrata of the elements of the human body-7
The primary fluids and contents of the body-7
Disorder of three humors-3
In pure secretion-3
Bundles of muscular bones-16
Stitch like formations-7
Collections of bones-14
Parting lines -14
Hair pores of the skin-3? crore.
3. Work of the heart?Western knowledge regarding the functions of the heart is very recent. The British scientist, William Harvey, had, in 1628, through his experiments, established that it was very essential for the blood to reach the heart, but he could not say how it reaches the heart. A few years later, in 1669, and Italian scientist Marshellon Malfigi revealed the process by which the blood reaches the heart. However, in the Shatapath Brahman, which dates back to more than seven thousand years, one finds a complete description of the entire functioning of the heart. In that, it has been said:
Haraterdadaaterayaterhridaya Shabdah?nirukta?This means that the heart expresses the three actions to taking, giving and circulating.
?Hr? (harane) means to receive; ?d?(dane) means to propel and ?y? (in gatau) means to circulate=hridayam-shatpath brahmanam.
Similarly, in the Naadi Gyanam Grant, it is written;
Tatsankocham cha vikaasam cha swatah
The heart will itself continue the acts of contraction and expansion over and over again.
In another book, named Bhel Samhita, there is a description:
Hrido raso nissarati tasmaadeti cha
It is from the heart that the blood flows out and goes to the various parts of the body. It flows to the heart through the veins and the veins carry out this work in this manner.
4. Causes of diseases?In Ayurveda, the principle of the malfunctioning of the gout, biles and phlegm is the basis for the diagnosis and treatment of a disease.
As long as these three are well-balanced, the body remains healthy. When there is an imbalance, it becomes the cause of some disease.
These three elements (tridosha) are present in the whole body although they appear more in some parts of the body. According to the work that they do, each of these has been divided into five parts and their effects have also been given.
Gout: This has five functions:
1. Life-Mainly respiration that is deep inspiration and expiration. (Respiratory system)
2. Udaan-Mainly brings out speech.
3. Vyaan-The carrier of the fluids of the body(Circulation of blood).
4. Samaan-Digestion of food, etc. (Digestive system)
5. Apaan-Throwing out the wastes to the body (Excretory system).
Bile: This also has five functions:
1. Digestive-Digesting the food, distributing the essence and warming the body.
2. Ranjak-Changing the colour of the chyle to red and converting it into blood.
3. Saadhak-Increases the intelligence and the brains.
4. Aalochak-Helps in vision.
5. Bhraajak-Helps in the make up of the colour.
Cough or phlegm: This also has five functions:
1. Avalambak-gives power and energy.
2. Kledak-breaks down the food grain.
3. Bodhak-helps in providing taste.
4. Tarpak-controls the eyes and the senses.
5. Shleshak-lubricates the joints.
It is believed that anything given to rid one of some disease, which is made from animals, vegetables or minerals, will have the five elements of juice, quality, valour, maturity and effect and each of them has been minutely analysed.
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