Article 21 vests every individual with the Right to Life and at the same time Article 19(1)(g) vests every person with the Right to Free Trade and Profession. However, the problem arises when the individuals lack the means to secure an employment or develop a source of livelihood for themselves. Such an inability on the part of the individuals runs with a risk of plunging them into the puddles of struggle and poverty. In such a scenario, it becomes a burden upon the State to undertake certain measures which can induce a cycle of employment generation in the economy. Generating employment can enable the people to sustain themselves and at the same time ensure that they relish a minimum standard of living.
The emergence of the concept of the ‘welfare state’ has expanded the expectations that the subjects have from the state. The subjects of the state now expect that in return for their submitted obedience and taxes, they would receive not only protection from the state but also welfare; development is one such way by which the state dispenses welfare. In case the development activities in the society are not satiating the demands of the subjects, the subjects tend to question the very reason to submit their obedience to the state, and this doubt can create chaos in society. It is also in the interests of the State to prevent such a chaos and undertake measures to generate employment.
Policy Suggestions to trigger employment generation
Developing Arid Land into Agricultural Land: It is possible to start turning the arid land into agricultural land, which would not only give the locals temporary work but also help the state’s agricultural infrastructure grow. The state may decide to increase the number of tube wells it constructs in order to improve irrigation of both already-existing and newly-developed agricultural lands. Such programmes would support local residents’ food security as well as the growth of the local economy.
Development of Industrial Infrastructure: If businesses decide to locate their facilities in the State, the public policy can be changed to provide benefits in the form of incentives. This goal can be accomplished by establishing Special Economic Zones in the State or by providing tax breaks to newcomers. Another change could be to upgrade the area’s infrastructure to give businesses uninterrupted and simple access to transportation and freight facilities. A plan put into place along these lines would help the local businesses and draw new ones there. It would enable the creation of more employment opportunities for its citizens while also enabling increased local economic growth.
Development of educational facilities: A development of schools and universities creates jobs for teachers, peons, Bus drivers, coordinators, managers, receptionist, accountants etc. The development of educational institution does not only create employment but also attracts students from other parts of the country to study. Such a relocation of students from other parts of the county brings in a growth for the local economy by creating a demand for the real estate, PG business etc.
Religious Tourism: The Government can devise plans that offer incentives to set up hotels and tourist attractions in order to increase employment through tourism. Uttarakhand is known as the Dev Bhoomi and draws millions of pilgrims each year. It would strengthen Uttarakhand’s culture while also giving graduates in hotel management jobs in the hospitality sector.
Effective Implementation of PM Rozgar Yojna: Through the establishment of microbusinesses by the educated unemployed poor, the Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana (PMRY) was designed to provide employment for educated unemployed youth. It relates to developing ventures, offerings, and self-employment programmes tailored to particular industries. The state can oversee the scheme’s implementation to ensure that it is successful and that the residents of the state receive employment guarantees.
Incubation Centers: The state may also establish incubator facilities to assist young people as they launch businesses at various stages. This would not only create jobs for the business consultants, managers, Public Relations officers but also help bring in a culture of business in the state. The culture of business would directly cause the creation of numerous jobs in the state for the locals and also help tackle the issue of out-migration of the locals from the state.
Regular Infrastructural Development: The development of infrastructure requires significant services of the Engineers, Architects, Town Planners, Geologists, Labourer etc. and also in turn makes a state an attractive candidate to setup businesses and factories in. The infrastructure in the form of roads, bridges, Rail Network etc. also enables the people to enjoy a better connectivity within and outside the state. The development of infrastructure also requires tremendous amounts of cement, Iron rods and other construction material, if such material is sourced from producers within the state, it would make them hire more employees to keep up with the demand.
Organising Investors Summits: The state can also hold an annual even like the state of Uttar Pradesh called the Investors Summit to invite Foreign investors and inform them of the benefits to invest in the state, the investment by these investors in the forms of factories and industries would again lead to a requirement of professionals and laborers leading to the generation of employment.
Expected Outcomes of the policy Intervention
If the state implements the above suggested policies, the first and the foremost outcome that can be expected out of it is the creation of employment for the local population.
Secondly, it can also be expected to become a tool to control the unwanted out-migration from the state of Uttarakhand for it is the quest to secure an employment which is the major contributor to the out-migration causes.
Thirdly, the local economy can be expected to develop and increase the income of the state’s residents. A rising income of the people would also imply an increase in the taxes that the state receives, it would enable the state to increase its sphere of activities leading to a cyclic effect on the local development.
Fourthly, by curtailing the issue of out-migration by means of employment generation the state can also curb the ongoing demographic changes being caused by the out-migration of the indigenous communities and lastly, Uttarakhand can desire to become one of the major contributors to the national growth by being the torchbearer of GDP growth by housing an increased number of factories.
Creating jobs is crucial on a number of levels. Employment opportunities, from a political standpoint, give the populace a stake in the peace process by giving young people an alternative to violence. In terms of the economy, employment helps poor families by giving them an income, reviving domestic demand for goods and services, and promoting overall growth. Employment has the potential to enhance social welfare over the long term, encourage the return of displaced people, and aid in social healing. It is also a noteworthy fact that employment and the reduction of poverty are positively correlated. More people will be employed, which will increase their income and enable them to escape poverty if government aims to create new employment opportunities. Another benefit that can be concluded is that employment generation focusses on building long-lasting assets like watershed development projects, water harvesting infrastructure, irrigation systems, canal construction, roads connecting rural and urban areas, and dam construction. The social and economic development of the nation is significantly influenced by all of these resources.
Lastly, it can also be concluded that by constructing these long-lasting assets, the areas plagued by poverty are shielded from natural disasters like floods and droughts, enabling them to become self-sufficient and independent.