Haryana has surely carved out its niche through contribution in various fields. As Haryana completes fifty years of its existence Organiser takes a tour of this birth place of Indus-Sarasvati Civilisation
Haryana is said to be the birthplace of the first anecdotes of history. According to a legend, nature came into being at this place because of the boon given by Brahma. The first ever dynasty (of Kurus) was established here. Situated along the banks of the River Sarasvati, the Vedic Civilisation began and matured here. It was here that the Vedas were written. Replete with myths and legends, Haryana's 5,000 year old history is steeped in glory. It was here that Lord Krishna preached Gita at the start of the battle of Mahabharata. It was on this soil that saint Ved Vyas wrote Mahabharata in Sanskrit. Before the Mahabharata war, a battle of ten kings took place in the Kurukshetra region in the Sarasvati Valley. But it was the Mahabharata war, approximately in 900 BC, which gave to the region worldwide fame. The word Hariana, occurs in a 1328 AD Sanskrit inscription kept in the Delhi Museum, which refers to the Haryana region as ‘The Heaven on Earth’.
Excavations of various archeological sites in Haryana, like Naurangabad and Mittathal in Bhiwani, Kunal in Fatehbad, Agroha near Hissar, Rakhi Garhi (Rakhigarhi) in Jind, sites in Rukhi (Rohtak) and Banawali in Sirsa have evidence of pre-Harappan and Harappan culture. Findings of pottery, sculpture and jewellery in sites at Pehowa, Kurukshetra, Tilpat and Panipat have proved the historicity of the Mahabharata war.
Haryana has been the scene of many wars because of it being “The Gateway of North India”. As years rolled by, successive streams of Huns, Turks and the Afghans invaded India and decisive battles were fought on this land. After the downfall of the Gupta empire in the middle of 6th century AD north India was again split into several kingdoms. The Huns established their supremacy over the Punjab. It was after this period that one of the greatest King of ancient India, Harshvardhan began his rule. He became the King of Thanesar (Kurukshetra) in 606 AD, and later went on to rule the most of north India. In the 14th century, the Tomar kings led an army through this region to Delhi.
Later the Mughal, Babur, defeated the Lodhis in the First Battle of Panipat in the year 1526. Another decisive battle was fought in Panipat in 1556, establishing the reign of the Mughals for centuries to come. Taking advantage of Humayun's death, Hemu had marched to Agra and Delhi and occupied it without difficulty. In response, Bairam Khan (Akbar's guardian) marched towards Delhi. Both the armies clashed in the Second Battle of Panipat. Hemu was in a winning position when a stray arrow struck him in the eye. He fell unconscious causing panic among his troops. The tide of the battle turned and the Mughals won the battle. Towards the middle of the 18th century, the Marathas had control over Haryana. The intrusion of Ahmed Shah Durrani in India, culminated in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. Marathas' defeat in this battle marked the end of their ascendancy and the decline of the Mughal Empire, leading to the advent of the British rule.
In 1857, the people of Haryana joined the Indian leaders in the 1857 struggle against the British Government. By the end of June, 1857, most of the present Haryana region was liberated from the British. But the British managed to put down the rebellion in November 1857 by bringing in additional forces from outside the area. The sacrifices of Haryana’s brave soldiers have played a very important role in maintaining the territorial and sovereign integrity of our nation.
Haryana has more to offer. Also known as the ‘Green Land of India’, Haryana not only has a rich past but a great present and a promising future too.
Historicity of Haryana
Gurugram: Gurugram is the second largest city in Haryana. The land has spiritual importance as it finds place in Mahabharata. It adds to Haryana’s overall contribution in industrial sector with its amazing infrastructure. No wonder it has emerged as the state’s corporate capital.
Kurukshetra: Kurukshetra is a popular pilgrim destination as this ancient land was the battleground of the famous Mahabharata war. Dating back to 2800 BC, the land is where Lord Krishna preached Bhagavad Gita to Arjuna on the eve of the epic war. Here are the leading tourist attractions in Kurukshetra: Brahma Sarovar; Sannihit Sarovar; Kurukshetra Panorama & Science Centre; Dharohar Haryana Museum; Kalpana Chawla Planetarium; Sri Krishna Museum etc.
Panipat : Situated on River Yamuna banks, Panipat finds mention in Mahabharata as one of the five cities founded by the five Pandava brothers. Its historical importance extends beyond Mahabharata as the place witnessed three crucial battles in the history of India. It is also famous for its handlooms bwsides tourist attractions like Panipat Museum and Old Fort.
Ambala : Ambala is one of the ancient cities in Haryana. Archaeological evidences found here prove that the land was inhabited as back as the Paleolithic age. During the British rule, the district of Ambala played its part by rising against the British army on many an occasion. Nalagarh; Sis Ganj Gurudwara; Anandpur Sahib; Planetarium and Paget Park are tourist destinations here.
Hisar : Hisar is yet another part of Haryana that boasts of rich historic association. The land has evidences of being home to pre-historic man. The monuments here are feast to those who love to have a feel of the bygone era.
Karnal : The city is said to have been established by Kauravas for King Karna, who was famous for his generosity and the attitude to give away anything anyone requested of him. The leading attractions here are Karnal Fort and Karnal Lake.
Sonipat: Sonipat is said to be in existence even before the times of Mahabharata. It is said that the place was founded by the Pandava brothers. The place gains importance for being among the five towns demanded by the Pandava brothers in an attempt to avoid war. Besides these there are some other leading attractions in Haryana you would never want to miss such as hill station of Morni Hills, old site of Raja Ka Tila and cultural blend like Jal Mahal.
Making of a Modern State
This 21st largest State in India ranks amongst the leading industrialised states in the country. It is a major producer and supplier of agricultural products in India. Haryana was carved out of the Indian state of Punjab on November 1st 1966. The State was formed on the recommendation of the Sardar Hukam Singh’s Parliamentary Committee. . It has Uttar Pradesh on its eastern border, Punjab on its western border, Himachal Pradesh and Shivalik Hills on its northern border and Delhi, Rajasthan and Aravali Hills on its southern border.
When the State was created coming out of the shadow of Punjab and carv out own place in the
Chandigarh : Chandigarh earns the unique distinction of being the capital to two states – Punjab and Haryana. Considered the best planned city in India, Chandigarh has preserved its ancient beauty while keeping in line with the modern world. Here are the top attractions in Chandigarh:Leisure Valley; The Rock Garden; Le Corbusier Centre and number of Museums and Art Galleries are evidence of modernity associated with this city.
Faridabad : Faridabad is the biggest city in the state of Haryana. It is ranks amongst the leading industrial hubs making a fat contribution to the state’s revenue.
Panchkula : Panchkula is a satellite city of Chandigarh. The land was named thus as it is home to five irrigation canals.
Dealing with Language Issue
Haryanvi has traditionally been the dominant mother tongue in Haryana, with Standard Hindi being spoken as a second language. Haryanvi has no official status, as it is seen as a dialect of Hindi; thus Hindi is the official language and the most commonly spoken language in the state. Since it was the Punjabi Suba movement that had led to formation of Haryana, Bansi Lal thought, “Let any language other than Punjabi be the second language of the state”. Hence, Tamil became the second state language even though there might not have been even a single Tamil native family in the state. Since 1947, Punjabi has been spoken by many people in Haryana especially by those Hindus and Sikhs who migrated from West Punjab, following the Partition of India. As such, Punjabi edged out Tamil as the secondary official language of the state, other than Hindi and English, in 2010.
Tourism Hub of Haryana
Haryana has set up a number of tourist complexes, motels and camping sites to promote tourism. The tourist
complexes are named after Birds found in Haryana. Some of these places have dormitories and all of them have are on Delhi-Chandigarh highway. Yadavindra Gardens at Pinjore, on the Chandigarh Shimla road are a must see.
Surkhab (Sirsa) and Flamingo (Hissar) complexes are on the Delhi-Fazilka national highway. Kurukshetra is a great pilgrimage for Hindus and tourists from all over visit the venue of Mahabharat war and the birth place of the Bhagvad Gita. Haryana offers a great opportunity for bird watching in Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary & National Park and Bhindawas Bird Sanctuary. The internationally famous Surajkund Crafts Mela is held every year in the month of February, to promote Indian arts and handicrafts. The ‘Mango Festival’ and the ‘Kurukshetra Festival’ have also become popular annual events. In February, the Statesman Vintage Car Rally vends it way to the Sohna hill and Haryana Tourism celebrates the day with a Mela event.
Major Contributor of Foodgrains
After the Green revolution, things have changed. The upsurge in
productivity of Wheat and Rice turned the States into a major contributor of
foodgrains to the national pool. Agriculture and allied sector
contributed 18 per cent to gross state domestic product (GSDP) in 2014-15.
A Manufacturing Hub
Haryana is a maufacturing hub for some of the biggest global companies and the IT. While Haryana had a GSDP of Rs 332 crore at constant prices in 1967-68, it rose to Rs 3,96,642 crore in 2015-16. the State saw an average growth of 8.5 per cent between
2005-06 and 2014-15.
Sword Arm of the Nation
A total of 1,567,390 ex-servicemen are registered with the Indian Army, in which 165,702 are from Haryana (as on 2010). Haryana ranks second in
giving officers to Indian Army, Navy and Air Force.
Though Haryana has given India many famous personalities but few to be named are Indian cricketer Kapil Dev, Astronaut Kalpana Chawla. List of freedom fighters who represented Haryana are Babu Dayal Sharma, Heera Singh, Lala Shayam Lal, Dr Madhoram etc. The galaxy of sports personalities in wreslting from Haryana are pride of the nation. Some of them are Sakshi Malik,Geeta Phogat, Sushil Kumar, Yogeshwar Dutt, Vijender Singh etc.