Sage Kanaad considers the atom to be the final element. It is believed that when his life was ending, his disciples pleaded with him to take the name of God, but the only things he said was peelavah peelavah peelavah which means paramaanu paramaanu paramaanu.
Sage Kapil went a little deeper and his saankhya darshan presents an extremely scientific definition of the universe. Sage Kapil said the anything which has an internal structure, it has varied forms. Hence, we cannot say anything about the shape of the thing with which this world is made up with certainly. All we can say is that they are very minute and that they have a special characteristic. Hence, he said that the world was trigunaatmak (made of three virtues) and these are satgun, rajogun and tamogun. Sage Kapil's commentary is amazing. He says that these three virtues are:
Ladhvaadidharmah saadharmyam vaidharmyam cha gunaanaam.
?(Saankhay Darshan 1-128)
Equal because of the fact that they are minute, but from the point of virtue of properties, they are different. What is quality, virtue or attribute? He says?
Preetyapreetivishaadaadyairgu naanaamanyoanyam Vaidhamryam
?(Saankhya Darshan 1-127)
Attraction, repulsion and neutrality are the three attributes of these qualities. Their motion is because of attraction and repulsion. Hence, Saankhya says-
?(Saankhya Darshan 2-9)
The combination of attraction and repulsion is the creation. The entire universe is nothing but a game of attraction and repulsion. The power which makes all this happen is called operative power. All physical powers are amalgamated in this. But, who is this man who has the desire to know and in whose mind these questions arise, his mind and his apprehensions and where will they all finally integrate? The Vedanta has given a logical analysis and narrated the experience as per saankhya.
He said that before creation, nature was in an imperceptible situation but all virtues were in a state of equilibrium. This equilibrium gets broken by the determination of the basic element. The Upanishads have given a description of this?
This determination is will-power. This breaks the equilibrium of the virtues and it gives rise to agitation in the imperceptible nature leading to the beginning of the process of creation. It first develops as a huge intelligence power. This is the power of knowledge. This starts the process of expressing the power of action in various forms. A basic power of knowledge is regulating everything?from a minute atom to the entire universe. This is proved by the following facts?
1. Amongst the great creations is the spiral symmetry of the galaxy. On the other hand, there is the double helix system of the minute genes.
2. In his book entitled Infinite is all Directions, Freeman Dyson says, ?From the point of form, an amazing equilibrium can be seen in the world. If we look at it in four contexts, it will become clear. (A) The entire scenario of the world, (B) Our earth, (C) Nucleus of an atom, and (d) Super string. Our earth is 1020(1 followed by 20 zeros) times smaller than the known universe. Compared with the earth, the shape of the nucleus of the atom is 1020 times smaller and the super string is 1020 times smaller than the nucleus of the atom.
Saankhya says that the various things of the world and the various senses are made up of the panchatanmaatraa which is made up of three ahankaars (Vaikaari ahankaar; tejas ahankaar and bhootaadi ahankaar) which comes from excellence. The wheel of creation keeps moving and in the same sequence, it ends at the time of annihilation or universal destruction. To tell us what the various powers are, how they keep the wheel of creation moving, how destruction takes place and all that is happening, Vedanta Darshan says ? Kampanaat.
There is vibration and throbbing in creation and destruction. Lord Buddha says that the entire world is vibrating?sabbopajjalito loko, sabbo loko pakampito. There is nothing solid in this world, only vibration. Adi Shankaracharya says, ?From an atom to the heavens and from ordinary power to spiritual power, there is vibration.? Even Swami Vivekanand says, ?The entire world is vibration, throbbing. The only thing is that the mind has vigorous vibrations whereas the inanimates have weak vibrations. The creation and destruction of the universe is the result of these vibrations only. It is like the waves of the sea. Just as there is turmoil or vibrations above the sea, but below, it is peaceful, similarly, the basis of the world is Brahma and the tremors are only on the surface.?
In this way, in the evaluation of the universe, he realised that the world and its creator have three levels?tangible which we can experience and feel when we are awake; intangible which we experience when we are asleep. The creation of both the worlds is different. The waking world is made up of physical atoms and the dream world is made up of emotional atoms. The measurement of time in the two is also different or we can say it is conditional. There is a third world also called the Kaaran jagat which we experience when we are in deep sleep.
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