The main means of the machines have been described in the book, Yantrarnav.
Shakterutpadanam Kim Va Chalanam
Yantra or machine is a contrivance consisting of ?
Dand – Level
Chakra – Pulley
Dant – Toothed wheel or gear
Sarani – Inclined plane
Bhraman – Screw
and is required for producing shakti (power or motion) or change in direction.
Their main works are?
Each machine has three parts?
1.Beej ?The producer of the action, i.e. motor.
2.Keelak?The pin joining power and work i.e. greel.
3.Shakti?The ability of doing work, i.e. power.
Thus, a machine moves because of its three parts; five means and the activities that they do. These together create a variety of movements.
Tiryagurdhvamadhah Prishthe Puratah
Gamanam Saranam Pat Iti Bhedhah
Various works require a number of movements to do the work.
1. Tiryag ?Slanting
2. Oordhva ?Upwards
3. Adhah ?Downwards
5. Puratah ?Forwards
What qualities a machine must have are described in the Samarangan Sutradhar, speaking of the twenty qualities like the inter-relationship of the parts, of how one does not have to take special care while it works, how to use less power that it should not make much sound, parts must not become loose, there should not be much variation in speed, time management should be taken care of, so that it works for a long time, etc. Later, it has been mentioned in the book?
Chirkalsahatvam Ch Yantrasyaite
Longativity is a major quality of a machine.
Hydraulic machine (turbine)?In the 31st chapter of Samarangan Sutradhar, with reference to the use of water current in the generation of power, it has been said?
Dhara Ch Jalbharashch Payso
Yatha Neeramdhratapi Ch
Evamadeeni Bhujasya Jaljani
?The mass and momentum of flowing water current is used in hydraulic machines or turbines for the generation of power. Water current rotates an object and if the water falls from a great height, it has greater impact and the turbine moves in proportion to its weight and speed. This generates electricity.?
Sangriheetshch Dattashch Pooritah
Marud Beejatvmayati Yantreshu
?Collecting water, allowing it to flow and reusing it is a path to use force as power. This process has been described in greater detail in this chapter only. We also get some other references about mechanical science.?
During the reign of the Chalukyas, they had a self-operational system of draining water from a tank in the garden. This is described in the journal of Anantacharya Indological Institute, Bombay.
The Viman Shastra, written by Sage Bharadwaj has the description of a number of machines with which we shall deal in the context of the chapter on Aeronautics.
The 31st chapter of the Samarangan Sutradhar of Raja Bhoj is an authority in mechanical science. This chapter gives a description of many machines like wooden airplanes, mechanical soldiers and watchmen; one may also catch a glimpse of a robot in it.
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